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Herbs

Guduci / Tinospora cordifolia

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Botanical Name– Tinospora cordifolia willd. (Miers ex Hook . f. &Thoms)
Family – MENISPERMACEAE
Synonyms – Avyatha , Amrta, Amrtavalli,Kundali, Guducika,Gundra,Cakrangi , Cakra Laksana,Candrahasa , Jivantika , Jvara nasini , Jvarari , Tantrika , Deva nirmita, Dhara, Naga kanyaka , Naga Kumarika , Bhisakpriya , Mandali, Madhuparni , Rasayani , Vatsadani , Vayastha , Vara , Visalya , Syama , Surakrta , Soma , Soma Valli Ect1.
There is another variety of Guduci known as Kandodbhava Guduci described in Dhanvantari Nighantu . Kandamrta , Kanda .
Guducika , Pindamrta , Bahucchitra and Kanda rohini.

Vernacular Names of Tinospora cordifolia

Marathi : Ambarvel , Gulavela
Oriya : Gulochi , Gulancha
Hindi : Giloe , Gurach
Kannada : Amryta balli, Ugani balli
Malayalam : Amrytu , Sittamrytu
Telugu : Tippa teega
Bengali : Giloe , Gulancha
Punjabi : Batindu , Gilogularich
Gujarati : Gado , Gulo
Sikkim : Gurjo
Tamil : Amrida valli , SIlam , Pattigai

Botanical Description

1) Tinospora Corfifolia Miers (Menispermum Cordifolium Willd ) – It is a large climber with succulent , corky and grooved stems; branches possess slender pendulous fleshy roots. Leaves – membranous , glabrous , 5-10 cm long , cordate ; petiole 2.5-7 cm long . Flowers- in racemes of about 5 cm ; axillary , terminal or from the old wood , pale yellowish white in colour . Fruits – carpets , dorsally convex , ventrally flat , size of a large pea.

2) T. Cinensis : (T. malabarica (Lam.) Miiers ) – It is a large climber with 2 cm diameter stem . Old branches are smooth and shining , more or less warty light coloured papery bark , yong parts covered with whitish hairs . Leaves – membranous, sparingly pubescent above , broadly ovate –cordate , 7.5-23 cm long, petioles 6- 12 cm long , stritate. Flowers- arranged in pseudo racemes arising from the old branches , simple pendunculate , yellowish green coloured . Fruits – drupes 1-3 , scarlet or orange coloured.

Different Varieties

In the original classical literature there is only one variety of Guduci dscribed . Dhanvantari Nighantu introduced two varieties of Guduci for the first time . They are : Guduci and Kandodbhava Guduci . Gangadhara mentioned about ‘Padma Guduci ‘ in his commentary (Ganga-C.S.Su.4). The botanical identity of second variety is Tinospora sinensis (Lour) . Merrill or T. malabarica .
Archarya P.V. Sharmaji that T. Crispa is being used in Assam for the management of fevers . Classically , Amrta dvaya means Guduci and Haritaki but not two varieties of Guduci .

Properties

  • Rasa – Tikta Kasaya (leaf is considered as Mathura by Kaiyadeva
  • Guna – Guru , Snigdha
  • Virya – Usna
  • Vipaka – Madhura
  • Karma – Tridosa samaka , Medhya ,Rasayan, Dipanniya, Garhi, Medohara , Kandughna , Jvara hara , Daha-prasamana.

Properties of other variety of tinospora cordifolia are explained separately : Rasa- Katu , Virya- Usna and Vipaka- Katu . It is specially useful in visa rogas .
Chemical Constituents- 1) T. Cordifolia– A diterpenoid of columbin type- tinosporin is isolated from plant (Sci. Cult. 26: p.140, 1960; Chem. Abstr. 61: 12331 b , 1964). Tinosporide and cordifolide (Sci. Res. 1:177 , 1964) . Tinosporidine and B- sitosterol Isolated stems ; Cordifol, heptacosanol and octacosanol reported from the leaves ( Comp. Ind. Med. Plants vol.2 p.679). A new furanoid diterpene – tinosporide from stems (Ind. J.Chem; 16B:317 , 1978 & Chem. Abstr. 93:72009c , 1980) . 18- norclerodene glucosie – tinosporaside – from stem wood is reported (phytochem 28:273 , 1989 & Chem. Abstr. 112:211629; 1990).

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